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Kiddush – If Somebody Forgot to Recite Kiddush on Friday Night; If Somebody Does Not Have Wine or Cannot Drink Wine

A person who did not, for whatever reason, recite Kiddush on Friday night must make up the missed Kiddush on Shabbat day. For example, if a person was ill and bedridden on Friday night, and could not recite Kiddush, or even if a person intentionally neglected to recite Kiddush, he must recite Kiddush the following day. This means that instead of reciting the brief Kiddush that we normally recite on Shabbat day, he would recite the Friday night Kiddush. This is the ruling of the Ben Ish Hai (Rav Yosef Haim of Baghdad, 1833-1909), in Parashat Bereshit (19), as well as Hacham Ovadia Yosef, in Halichot Olam. Hacham Ovadia adds that even if a person remembered to recite Kiddush only during Ben Hashemashot (the 13.5-minute period after sunset) on Shabbat afternoon, he should recite Kiddush at that point. Since the Kiddush obligation applies throughout Shabbat, one who did not recite Kiddush on Friday night may recite it anytime until the conclusion of Shabbat.

How should a person recite Kiddush if he does not have any wine or grape juice?

On Friday night, a person who does not have wine or grape juice must recite Kiddush over bread. He does not have the option of reciting Kiddush over a different beverage. On Shabbat day, however, it is preferable in such a case to recite Kiddush over a different intoxicating beverage, rather than over bread. In principle, any intoxicating beverage may be used for Kiddush in this situation, though in practice, one should use beer. Most people are incapable of drinking a full Rebi’it of other intoxicating beverages (such as whisky and other hard liquor), and therefore a person should use beer for Kiddush on Shabbat morning if he does not have access to wine or grape juice. This applies as well to somebody who cannot drink wine or grape juice for health reasons (such as if a person has an allergy).

If a person on Shabbat morning does not have wine or beer, and he cannot drink a Rebi’it of another intoxicating beverage, then he should recite Kiddush over another drink, such as tea, coffee or fruit juice. (The tea or coffee must have cooled off so that one can drink a Rebi’it within the required time frame.) Hacham Ovadia Yosef rules that since in this case one has no other option, he may use these beverages for Kiddush, despite the fact that they are normally not suitable for Kiddush.

Summary: One who did not, for whatever reason, recite Kiddush on Friday night must recite the Friday night Kiddush on Shabbat day. A person who does not have wine or grape juice for Kiddush on Friday night should recite Kiddush over bread. On Shabbat morning, he should recite Kiddush over beer (or another intoxicating beverage, if he can drink a Rebi’it within the required time frame). If he does not have beer, then he may recite Kiddush over tea, coffee or fruit juice. This applies as well to somebody who cannot drink wine or grape juice.


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