Someone who purposely on Shabbat put dough in an oven to bake, and before it baked he wanted to take it out, is this allowed? Taking bread out of an oven on Shabbat is an Issur Dirabanan-a rabbinical transgression called “Rediyat Hapat”. Baking bread on Shabbat is a biblical transgression called “Afiya”. Do we tell this person who wants to take out the dough that he must suffer the consequences of his actions and that being that there is an Issur Dirabanan he is not allowed to take it out, or do we let him take out the dough before it bakes thus saving him from transgressing a Biblical transgression?
The Shulhan Aruch (Rabbi Yosef Karo, 1488-1575) writes (Orah Haim 254, 6) that he is allowed to take out the dough before it bakes on Shabbat although he is transgressing the rabbinical law for it is better that he transgresses a Derabanan than a De’orayta. The Mishna Berura(Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, 1838-1933) comments that if possible, he should take the dough out with a “Shinuy”-“in an unusual way”, for example, taking it out with a knife.
Is it permissible for a friend of the person who put the dough in, to take it out in order to save his friend from committing a biblical transgression?
We don’t tell a person to commit a sin in order to save his friend from one. Even though in this case the sin of taking out the dough is much lighter than the sin of baking, we still don’t allow the friend to take it out.
This prohibition of taking out bread from an oven only applied in the olden days where taking out the bread consisted of peeling it off the walls of the oven. However, these days where this is not the case there is no law against it and it will be permitted. Being that this is the case, would it be permissible for a friend of the person who put the dough in an oven on Shabbat to, remove it in order to save him from the sin of baking?
The Mishna Berura writes that it is still forbidden for another person to remove the dough before it bakes, because the dough is Mukseh.
The following question was brought to Rabbi Shmeuel Halevi Wosner: A person who was working in Kirrub Rehokim-bringing back Jews to religion was asked to come for a weekend to speak in a certain town that did not have a Minyan. Do we tell him that he is not allowed to miss a Minyan even at the expense of bringing back lost souls? He answered, that the rule that was mentioned before that one does not transgress a sin to save others from sinning does not apply here. When it comes to saving another Jew’s soul the Halacha (Orah Haim, 306, 14) even allows the transgression of a biblical law. Therefore he will be allowed to go, even if he won’t be praying with a Minyan.